Full Cone Nozzle Technology

The shape of the tip determines the spray range of full cone nozzles. A typical application of these nozzles is continuous casting cooling when it’s necessary to spray the same volume of liquids onto a surface to cool objects. Our engineers design a series of full cone nozzles to satisfy different needs. No matter what kind of full cone nozzles they are, they have unique applications.



Standard full cone Full Cone Nozzle TechnologySTANDARD FULL CONE (Turbulence):

These nozzles use a specially shaped vane placed at the nozzle inlet to give a rotational speed to the fluid flowing through the nozzle. Because of the rotational speed of the fluid, water exiting the nozzle orifice is subjected to centrifugal force and opens up in the shape of a full cone. The extent of the angle of the cone is a function of both exit speed (created from the inlet pressure) and the internal design of the nozzle. It can vary in practice from 15° to 120°. These nozzles can be also produced as square full cone nozzles where the square shape of the pyramidal spray is obtained by a special design of the outlet orifice.







Spiral nozzle Full Cone Nozzle TechnologyThis is not properly a full cone but rather a continuous liquid curtain evolving with the shape of a spiral inside a conical volume. The disadvantage of a scarcely even distribution is compensated by an exceptionally good resistance to clogging, large orifice and vaneless which make this nozzle the best choice in those applications such as wet scrubber, fire-fighting systems, etc.

 MULTIPLE FULL CONE (Turbulence): Cluster Nozzle Full Cone Nozzle Technology

Several nozzles are grouped in a cluster with different spray directions. These nozzles produce large capacity of watermist. If you need both large capacity and mist, multi-orifice full cone nozzles are the best option.

TANGENTIAL FULL CONE (Turbulence):Tangential nozzle Full Cone Nozzle Technology

These nozzles use a tangential injection of liquid into a whirling chamber to generate centrifugal forces which break up the liquid vein as soon as it leaves the orifice. Precisely designed orifice profiles, making use of the Coanda effect, provide the ability to obtain very large spray angles.


To meet the needs of different operating environments, PNR developed a series of vanes, each one with its own technical features. See here below.

Slotted vane Full Cone Nozzle Technology


Slotted Vane: so called for its spray section with 6 flows slots on its edge portion and one in the center. These vanes produce high-speed rotation of pressurized liquids that flow into turbulence chambers where they are atomized. Slotted vanes provide an excellent atomization in a short time. Effective for cost-saving and in case of limited space.


Disc vane Full Cone Nozzle Technology


Disc Vane: Innovative design and precise machining, its smooth surface reduces pressure loss and avoids turbulence. It uses 6 peripheral passages to create a swirling motion of the liquid inside the spray chamber. A set of superficial millings on the lower side of the disc act as a brake on the liquid rotation at the centre creating a full cone jet with an even distribution and finely atomized droplets. No central hole to avoid clogging.


X vane Full Cone Nozzle Technology


X Vane: are widely used, mainly in steelworks. Their simple design is based on two sloping flat surfaces which induce a rotation of the liquid going through the nozzle, and two small slots on each flat part to produce a full-cone spray pattern. All vanes are secured inside the nozzle body to prevent their moving in case of size changes due to high temperatures or sudden vacuum conditions in the feed pipe


S vane Full Cone Nozzle Technology

S Vane: provide a large free passage of liquids through the nozzle, with nearly the same diameter of a spray tip. Therefore they offer the widest possible passage and the highest resistance to clogging among all full-cone spray nozzles with internal vane.




Spiral vane Full Cone Nozzle Technology


Spiral Vane: is specific design of spiral full cone nozzles. Liquids hit spiral vane then atomize and extend to the desired spray angle. The specific design greatly increases liquids inlet and outlet diameter. Any foreign matters entering could come out. It avoids clogging and provides larger capacity with the same thread size.



When full and hollow cone nozzles are used simultaneously, it’s vital that they cover a uniform spray volume. In general there are two methods to achieve accurate nozzles settings: matrix configuration and offset configuration.

Matrix Configuration

Matrix 1 300x187 Full Cone Nozzle TechnologyMatrix 3 300x202 Full Cone Nozzle Technology


O – Width of overlapping area
D – Diameter of spray
H – Nozzle distance to target
P – Nozzle spacing
θ – Spray angle

Matrix 2 300x215 Full Cone Nozzle Technology


Offset Configuration

Offset 1 300x187 Full Cone Nozzle TechnologyOffset 3 300x250 Full Cone Nozzle Technology

O – Width of overlapping area
D – Diameter of spray
H – Nozzle distance to target
P – Nozzle spacing
θ – Spray angle

Offset 2 297x300 Full Cone Nozzle Technology


Hollow Cone Nozzle Technology >